Atheroma / Arterial occlusive disease

Although the symptoms and signs of arterial occlusive disease may be unmistakable, in many cases 
there is difficulty in establishing a definite diagnosis by clinical examination alone.

Measurement of 
the ankle/brachial pressure index is a useful guide to the presence of lower limb arterial occlusive disease but 
performed only in the resting state may not always reflect the extent of disease. An exercise study 
involves measurement of arterial pressure in the leg both before and after exercise 
on a treadmill. This allows exclusion of patients with spinal claudication or other causes of leg pain, and allows distinction of those with arterial claudication and the level of the problem.

A post exercise decrease in ankle pressures suggests an abnormal study and is followed up with an 
arterial duplex scan to determine the nature and level of the disease. This identifies those cases 
that are suitable for minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as angioplasty as opposed to 
those that will require surgical intervention.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be screened with ultrasound making very accurate measurements of 
aneurysm sac.

Carotid artery disease

Carotid artery disease, is a narrowing of a carotid artery. The narrowing is caused by plaque or fatty deposits along the inner wall of the artery resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain. In some cases, a complete blockage of the artery can r…

Subclavian steal syndrome

Aortic dissection

Endovascular repair is usually required to treat aneurysm, most frequently with a stent graft.

It is a minimally invasive procedure with shorter recovery periods and is an alternative to major…

Mesenteric ischcomia

Renal artery disease (Kidney Disease)


Outstanding progress has been made in recent years by vascular surgeons, specialists and diagnosticians to identify and treat peripheral artery disease (PAD) early. As it is a condition most commonly affecting the legs, symptoms are more noticeabl…

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