Atheroma / Arterial occlusive disease
Although the symptoms and signs of arterial occlusive disease may be unmistakable, in many cases there is difficulty in establishing a definite diagnosis by clinical examination alone.
Measurement of the ankle/brachial pressure index is a useful guide to the presence of lower limb arterial occlusive disease but performed only in the resting state may not always reflect the extent of disease. An exercise study involves measurement of arterial pressure in the leg both before and after exercise on a treadmill. This allows exclusion of patients with spinal claudication or other causes of leg pain, and allows distinction of those with arterial claudication and the level of the problem.
A post exercise decrease in ankle pressures suggests an abnormal study and is followed up with an arterial duplex scan to determine the nature and level of the disease. This identifies those cases that are suitable for minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as angioplasty as opposed to those that will require surgical intervention. Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be screened with ultrasound making very accurate measurements of aneurysm sac.
Carotid artery disease
Carotid artery disease, is a narrowing of a carotid artery. The narrowing is caused by plaque or fatty deposits along the inner wall of the artery resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain. In some cases, a complete blockage of the artery can r…
Renal artery disease (Kidney Disease)
Outstanding progress has been made in recent years by vascular surgeons, specialists and diagnosticians to identify and treat peripheral artery disease (PAD) early. As it is a condition most commonly affecting the legs, symptoms are more noticeabl…